We are all about transparency, so we provided some of our scientific rationale along with published studies showcasing why potent serum is great for you.
Vitamin C has demonstrated efficacy from 0.01 – 3% usage levels in cosmetics products.
It has been proven to be safe and effective at these levels. Sodium ascorbyl phosphate is stable for at least 24 months in the original sealed container.
Here, 0.5% vitamin C was used as higher concentrations generally are not associated with increased efficacy.
In another study, alpha-tocopherol levels were increased in the skin when a product was applied containing 0.15%. Suggested concentrations for vitamin E in cosmetics products range from 0.014 – 2.5%.
Vitamin E acetate is stable to heat and oxygen. It is stable in the unopened container for 36 months. It is safe up to 5%.
Here, 0.5% of vitamin E acetate was used in the final formulation.
A coQ10 serum was shown to be effective in replenishing coQ10 levels in the skin and increasing cellular energy metabolism in aging skin. The skin also had reduced free radicals and increase in antioxidant capacity. The concentration used was 870 uM (0.075%).
CoQ10 is stable for more than 24 months in its unopened container. Elsewhere, concentrations of 0.3 – 1% are recommended. Here, 0.3% coQ10 was used.
There is evidence that caffeine inhibits collagenase, elastase and tyrosinase, enzymes responsible for loss of skin structure and elasticity and the appearance of aging.
Caffeine has also been shown to help skin cells to eliminate reactive oxygen species by activating autophagy
ALA has been demonstrated to be effective at 0.5% . It has low water solubility and greater than 5% can cause irritation of the skin.
At 300um (0.014%) vitamin E acetate and 400 uM (0.012%) sodium ascorbyl phosphate, 30% inhibition of peroxide-induced oxidation was observed. The combination of water soluble and fat-soluble vitamins provides a dual antioxidant effect.
The combination of water soluble and fat-soluble vitamins provides a dual antioxidant effect.
Vitamin A (retinol) falls into a class of compounds called retinoids, that are all precursors to retinoic acid.
Studies show that retinoic acid application results in improvement of fine lines and deep wrinkles, roughness and pigmentation. Retinoic acid acts on cell receptors, turning on mechanisms that effect skin cell growth and function and improve cellular function. Retinol has been demonstrated to significantly decrease wrinkle surface area and hyperpigmentation at 0.5% when applied daily over 12 weeks.
When combined with glycolic acid, there is evidence that retinol has better bioavailability improving its overall efficacy.
Argan oil has been demonstrated to increase the elasticity of the skin and reverse signs of aging. It is also non-comedogenic.